Gynaecological cancer refers to the five cancers that start in a woman’s reproductive system:
Cervical cancer affects the cells of the lining of the cervix (the neck of the womb), which is the opening from the womb to the vagina and also the canal that connects the womb to the vagina.
Endometrial Cancer (also known as uterine or womb cancer)
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer. It may also be called womb cancer, uterine cancer or cancer of the uterus. The endometrium is the lining of the womb, where most endometrial cancers start.
Women have two ovaries located on each side of the uterus (womb). Ovarian cancer develops when the cells in the ovary grow and multiply too quickly, damaging healthy tissue. Sometimes these cells come from the fallopian tubes, close to the ovaries. Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological cancer.
Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer that starts inside the vagina. It is most commonly diagnosed in women over 60 years old.
Vulval cancer is a rare cancer that affects the external female sex organs. It most commonly starts on the inner edges of the two pairs of lips of the vulva, the inner and outer labia. It can also occur on the skin between the lips, including the clitoris, and the skin between the vulva and the anus.